conceive of the passions which harass us as vices into which men fall by
their own fault, and, therefore, generally deride, bewail, or blame them,
or execrate them, if they wish to seem unusually pious.
lees verder "Chapter I. Introduction" »
our Theologico-Political Treatise we have treated of natural and civil
right,1 and in our Ethics have
explained the nature of wrong-doing, merit, justice, injustice,2
and lastly, of human liberty.
lees verder "Chapter II. Of natural right." »
every dominion the state is said to be Civil; but the entire body subject
to a dominion is called a Commonwealth, and the general business of the
dominion, subject to the direction of him that holds it, has the name of
Affairs of State.
lees verder "Chapter III. Of the right of supreme authorities." »
the right of the supreme authorities is limited by their power, we showed
in the last chapter, and saw that the most important part of that right
is, that they are, as it were, the mind of the dominion, whereby all ought
to be guided; and accordingly, that such authorities alone have the right
of deciding what is good, evil, equitable, or iniquitous, that is, what
must be done or left undone by the subjects severally or collectively.
lees verder "Chapter IV. Of the functions of supreme authorities." »
Chap. II. Sec. 2, we showed, that man is
then most independent, when he is most led by reason, and, in consequence
(Chap. III. Sec. 7), that that
commonwealth is most powerful and most independent, which is founded and
guided by reason.
lees verder "Chapter V. Of the best state of a dominion." »
as men are led, as we have said, more by passion than reason, it follows,
that a multitude comes together, and wishes to be guided, as it were, by
one mind, not at the suggestion of reason, but of some common passion
that is (Chap. III. Sec. 9), common hope,
or fear, or the desire of avenging some common hurt.
lees verder "Chapter VI. Of monarchy" »
explaining the foundations of a monarchical dominion, I have taken in hand
to prove here in order the fitness of such foundations. And to this end
the first point to be noted is, that it is in no way repugnant to
experience, for laws to be so firmly fixed, that not the king himself can
lees verder "Chapter VII. Of monarchy (continuation)." »
far of monarchy. But now we will say, on what plan an aristocracy is to be
framed, so that it may be lasting. We have defined an aristocratic
dominion as that, which is held not by one man, but by certain persons
chosen out of the multitude, whom we shall henceforth call patricians.
lees verder "Chapter VIII. Of Aristocracy" »
we have considered an aristocracy, so far as it takes its name from one
city, which is the head of the whole dominion.
lees verder "Chapter IX. Of Aristocracy. Continuation." »
explained and made proof of the foundations of both kinds of aristocracy,
it remains to inquire whether by reason of any fault they are liable to be
dissolved or changed into another form.
lees verder "Chapter X. Of Aristocracy. Conclusion." »
at length, to the third and perfectly absolute dominion, which we call
lees verder "Chapter XI - Of Democracy" »